Passed in 1972, The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the cornerstone of surface water quality protection in the United States.  While the Act does not address ground water or water quantity issues, it is aimed at reducing the direct pollution of waterways by financing wastewater treatment plants and by managing polluted runoff.  The goal is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters for “the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, wildlife and recreation in and on the water.”

When the CWA was first enacted, regulation was directed at the chemical aspects of the “integrity” goal.  Since then, more attention has been given to physical and biological integrity.  Initially, “point source” facilities such as sewage plants and industrial developments were the focus, with little notice given to runoff from streets, construction sites, and other “wet-weather” sources.  Since the 1980s, added regulations and various voluntary programs have been adopted to significantly reduce polluted runoff.

Additionally, CWA programs over the last decade have shifted to a watershed-based strategy.  Now, equal emphasis is placed on protecting healthy waters and restoring impaired ones.  A wide array of issues is addressed, and various stakeholders are included in development and implementation of strategies for improving state water quality.

In order for businesses to comply with regulatory authorities, runoff, or outfall sources must be monitored.  Neilson Research Corporation can help you meet these requirements by providing sample containers, technique, and instructions for proper documentation.

PCBs by EPA 608

Aroclor 1016 Aroclor 1242 Aroclor 1260
Aroclor 1221 Aroclor 1248
Aroclor 1232 Aroclor 1254


Arsenic Speciation

Total Arsenic Arsenic III Arsenic V


Chromium Speciation

Total Chromium Chromium III Chromium VI


Trace Metals

Aluminum Calcium Magnesium Silver Uranium
Antimony Chromium Manganese Sodium Vanadium
Arsenic Cobalt Molybdenum Strontium Zinc
Barium Copper Nickel Thallium
Beryllium Iron Potassium Tin
Boron Lead Selenium Titanium
Cadmium Lithium Silicon Tungsten


Organochlorine Pesticides by EPA 608

4,4´-DDD beta-BHC Endosulfan II gamma-BHC (Lindane)
4,4´-DDE Chlordane Endosulfan sulfate Heptachlor
4,4´-DDT delta-BHC Endrin Heptachlor epoxide
Aldrin Dieldrin Endrin aldehyde Methoxychlor
alpha-BHC Endosulfan I Endrin ketone Toxaphene




Volatile Organic Compounds EPA 624


1,1,1-Trichloroethane Chlorobenzene-d5
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Chloroethane
1,1,2-Trichloroethane Chloroform
1,1-Dichloroethane Chloromethane
1,1-Dichloroethene cis-1,3-Dichloropropene
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Dibromochloromethane
1,2-Dichlorobenzene Dibromofluoromethane
1,2-Dichloroethane Dichlorodifluoromethane
1,2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene
1,3-Dichlorobenzene m,p-Xylene
1,4-Dichlorobenzene Methylene chloride
1,4-Dichlorobenzene-d4 o-Xylene
1,4-Difluorobenzene Pentafluorobenzene
2-Chloroethyl vinyl ether Tetrachloroethene
4-Bromofluorobenzene Toluene
Acrolein Toluene-d8
Acrylonitrile trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene
Benzene trans-1,3-Dichloropropene
Bromodichloromethane Trichloroethene
Bromoform Trichlorofluoromethane
Bromomethane Vinyl chloride
Carbon tetrachloride Xylenes, Total


Low Level Mercury

EPA 1631 Low Level Mercury



Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds EPA 625

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene Benzo(k)fluoranthene
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane
1,2-Diphenylhydrazine as Azobenzene Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether
1,4-Dichlorobenzene-d4 Bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
2,4,6-Tribromophenol Butyl benzyl phthalate
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Chrysene
2,4-Dichlorophenol Di-n-butyl phthalate
2,4-Dimethylphenol Di-n-octyl phthalate
2,4-Dinitrophenol Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene Diethyl phthalate
2,6-Dinitrotoluene Dimethyl phthalate
2-Chloronaphthalene Fluoranthene
2-Chlorophenol Fluorene
2-Methylphenol (Cresol) Hexachlorobenzene
2-Nitrophenol Hexachlorobutadiene
3+4-Methylphenol (m,p Cresol) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
3,3´-Dichlorobenzidine Hexachloroethane
4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether Isophorone
4-Chloro-3-methylphenol N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
4-Chlorophenyl phenyl ether N-Nitrosodimethylamine
4-Nitrophenol N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
Acenaphthene Naphthalene
Acenaphthylene Nitrobenzene
Anthracene Pentachlorobenzene
Benzidine Pentachlorophenol
Benzo(a)anthracene Phenanthrene
Benzo(a)pyrene Phenol
Benzo(b)fluoranthene Pyrene

Adapted from:

“Introduction to The Clean Water Act.” 13 March 2003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1 Aug 2006